For many years, bathing was an important part of the daily life of the Romans. The Baths were much more than a place of bathing and grooming, it was where the people of every class met: young, old, rich and poor; They gathered to talk about politics, to receive a massage, to cut their hair, to exercise, etc.
The baths had several types of baths, the ones of warm water (tepidarium), hot water (caldarium) and cold water (frigidarium) besides saunas, patios, and shops.
Some of the emperors of the ancient Rome had ordered to construct great Termas, of which still some ruins are conserved.
Baths of Agrippa (Thermae Alexandrinae)
They were the first important thermal baths that were constructed in the old Rome. Initially it was only a sauna, but after the completion of the Aqua Virgo aqueduct, enough water was provided to turn it into a hot tub with a large swimming pool.
After a fire in the year 80 the thermal baths were rehabilitated and expanded. Today there are only small vestiges of these facilities.
Baths of Nero
They were built in the year 60 during the mandate of the emperor Nero and later reformed and extended in the times of Alexander Severo. These baths served as reference with respect to the baths that later would realize emperors like Trajano and Diocleciano.
The Baths of Nerón occupied a surface of 300x120 meters to only 50 meters to the west of the Pantheon of Agripa. Nowadays like the Termas de Agripa, only small remains remain since some churches and buildings were built with the walls of these baths.
Thermal baths of Trajan
The Terme di Trajan is located on the Esquiline Hill occupying part of what was the Domus Aurea of Nero, between the Viale del Monte Oppio and Viale delle Terme di Traiano. Its construction began in the year 104 and was finished in the 109 under the mandate of the emperor Trajano.
At the moment some parts of its structure and its 7 cisterns are conserved, that could store more than 8 million liters of water. These huge water tanks are known as the Sette Sale (the seven rooms) and are closed to the public.
Thermals bath of Caracalla
The remains of these thermal springs are the best preserved monuments of ancient Rome, making it an important tourist attraction of the city. They were built during the reign of Marco Aurelio Antonino Basiano (Caracalla) between the year 212 and 216.
These spas were all a display of grandeur and luxury. Its interior was covered end to end with marble and gold, decorated with precious mosaics of all colors. In addition to the pools at different temperatures and saunas, it housed numerous sculptures, works of art and fountains.
Around the main building were open spaces for field and track events and buildings containing libraries, shops and restaurants. The enclosure could accommodate about 2000 Romans easily.
The construction of the Diocletian Baths was ordered by the Emperor Diocletian in 305. His intention was to create gigantic thermal baths never seen, surpassing those of his predecessors. It occupied an area of 13 hectares and was able to accommodate about 3000 people.
The materials used were similar to those of the Termas de Caracalla, brick covered with stucco in the exterior and marble in the interior. The few remains of these monumental thermal baths are located between Piazza della Repubblica and Piazza del Cinquecento, divided between the Romanesque Nazionale Museum, the baroque church of San Bernardo delle Terme and the Renaissance church of Santa Maria degli Angeli, Of the spa structure for its construction.
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